<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.2d1 20170631//EN" "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd">
      <JournalTitle>African Journal of Health Economics</JournalTitle>
      <Volume-Issue>Volume 10 Issue 1</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>june 2021</Season>
      <ArticleType>Review &amp; Research</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Socio-economic determinants of infant mortality rate in Nigeria: Evidence from autoregressive distributed lag technique</ArticleTitle>
          <FirstName>Emomine Odjesa Clement Atewe</FirstName>
      <Abstract>Background: The high infant mortality rate (IMR) in Nigeria, in comparison to other African countries and the world at large, has been a major public health concern, while considering the fact that the 3rd Sustainable Development Goal (SDG3) aims to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all people of all ages by the year 2030. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of IMR in Nigeria in the short and the long-run periods.&#13;
Methods: Data, spanning from year 1990 to 2018, was obtained from the World Bank’s World Development Indicator (WDI) database. We adapted the theoretical framework of Grossman health production function model for this study. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique was used for both the short-and long-run analysis. &#13;
Findings: This study revealed that in the long-run, the total fertility rate and carbon IV oxide (CO2) significantly increased IMR by a factor of 2.4045 and 0.1194, respectively. On the other hand, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (as a proxy for wealth status or income level), public health expenditure, and primary gross educational enrolment level for females all significantly decreased the IMR by a factor of 0.2949, 0.0233, and 0.0714, respectively.&#13;
Conclusion: Public health expenditure, wealth/income level and the formal education of women are all significant socio-economic factors implicated in the much-needed reduction of Nigeria’s high IMR. Adequate attention should thus be given by the Government to increasing public health expenditure, reducing poverty, and also, improving the formal educational level of females, working towards the attainment of the SDG3.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>ARDL, Infant mortality rate, Socio-economic determinants, Grossman’s health production function, Nigeria</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://ajhe.org.in/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=13393&amp;title=Socio-economic determinants of infant mortality rate in Nigeria: Evidence from autoregressive distributed lag technique</Abstract>
        <References>World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI). Nigeria [Data file]. 2020. Available from: https://data.worldbank.org/country/NG&#13;
	Reidpath DD, Allotey P. Infant mortality rate as an indicator of population health. Journal of Epidemiology and; Community Health. 2003 May 1;57(5):344–6. 10.1136/jech.57.5.344&#13;
	World Population Review. Infant mortality rate by country. 2021. Available from: https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/infant-mortality-rate-by-country&#13;
	Kana MA, Doctor HV, Peleteiro B, Lunet N, Barros H. Maternal and child health interventions in Nigeria: a systematic review of published studies from 1990 to 2014. BMC Public Health. 2015 Apr 9;15(1):334. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1688-3&#13;
	United Nations. , A/RES/70/1. 2015. Available from: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld&#13;
	Morakinyo OM, Fagbamigbe AF. Neonatal, infant and under-five mortalities in Nigeria: an examination of trends and drivers (2003-2013). PLOS ONE. 2017 Aug 9;12(8):e0182990. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182990&#13;
	World Health Organization (WHO). Social determinants of health. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/social_determinants/sdh_definition/en/&#13;
	Osawe OW. Determinant of infant mortality rate: a panel data analysis of African countries.Developing Country Studies. 2014;4(18):111–5. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/300004564_Determinant_of_Infant_Mortality_Rate_A_Panel_Data_Analysis_of_African_Countries&#13;
	Abbuy EK. Macroeconomic determinants of infant mortality in WAEMU Countries: evidence from panel data analysis. Applied Economics and Finance. 2018;5(6):52–60.Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/300004564_Determinant_of_Infant_Mortality_Rate_A_Panel_Data_Analysis_of_African_Countries&#13;
	Edeme RK, Emecheta C, Omeje MO. Public health expenditure and health outcomes in Nigeria. International Journal of Dual Diagnosis. 2017 Mar 1;5(5):96–102. doi:10.11648/j.ajbls.20170505.13&#13;
	Raji, RO. Infant and under five mortality rate in Nigeria: an impact analysis of macroeconomic conditions. Risk and Financial Management.2020 Mar 26; 2(1): 1-8. Available from: https://doi.org/10.30560/rfm.v2n1p1&#13;
	Bashir YM. An assessment of the impact of Government expenditure on infrastructures: evidence from Nigerian health sector performance. European Journal of Business and Management. 2016;8(14):8–14.Available from: https://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/EJBM/article/view/30542&#13;
	Yaqub JO, Ojapinwa TV, Yussuff RO. Public health expenditure and health outcome in Nigeria: the impact of governance. European Scientific Journal. 2012 June; 8 (13): 189–201. Available from: https://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/206&#13;
	Ude DK, Ekesiobi CS. Effect of per capita health spending on child mortality in Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Research and; Development. 2014 September; 3(9):1-4. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335208282_Effect_of_Per_Capita_Health_Spending_on_Child_Mortality_in_Nigeria&#13;
	David J. Infant mortality and public health expenditure in Nigeria: empirical explanation of the nexus. Timisoara Journal of Economics and Business. 2018 Dec 1;11(2):149-64. doi: 10.2478/tjeb-2018-0010&#13;
	Adeyemi SL, Raheem UA, Olorunfemi FB. Under-five mortality and the environment of health in the third world: a Nigerian example. Journal of Human Ecology. 2008 Oct;24(2):117–24. doi:10.1080/09709274.2008.11906107&#13;
	Mohajan HK. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming. . 2011;(2), 21–34. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235225606_Greenhouse_Gas_Emissions_Increase_Global_Warming&#13;
	D’Amato G, Cecchi L, D’Amato M, Annesi-Maesano I. Climate change and respiratory diseases. European Respiratory Review. 2014 Jun 1;23(132):161–9. doi:10.1183/09059180.00001714&#13;
	Cella W, Baia-da-Silva DC, Melo GC de, Tadei WP, Sampaio V de S, Pimenta P, et al. Do climate changes alter the distribution and transmission of malaria? Evidence assessment and recommendations for future studies. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 2019;52:e20190308. doi: 10.1590/0037-8682-0308-2019&#13;
	Caldwell JC. Education as a factor in mortality decline: an examination of Nigerian data. Population Studies. 1979;33(3):395–413. doi:10.2307/2173888&#13;
	World Health Organization (WHO).Health benefits of family planning. 1995:1-39.Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1995/WHO_FHE_FPP_95.11.pdf&#13;
	Grossman M. On the concept of health capital and the demand for health. Journal of Political Economy. 1972;80(2):223–55. Available from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1830580&#13;
	Sede IP, Izilien EI. Maternal mortality rate and economic growth in Nigeria: an estimation of Grossman death model. Asian-African Journal of Economics and Econometrics. 2014;14(1):135-47. Available from: https://www.econbiz.de/Record/maternal-mortality-rate-and-economic-growth-in-nigeria-an-estimation-of-grossmandeath-model-peter-sede-igbaudumhe/10010478680&#13;
	Indexmundi. Nigeria-School enrolment [Data file]. 2020. Available from: https://www.indexmundi.com/facts/nigeria/school-enrollment&#13;
	Imoughele LE, Ismaila M. Determinants of public healthcare expenditure in Nigeria: an error correction mechanism approach. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2013 Oct;4(13):220-33.Available from: https://ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_4_No_13_October_2013/24.pdf&#13;
	Knoema. Nigeria-CO2 emissions [Data file]. 2020. Available from: https://knoema.com/atlas/Nigeria/CO2-emissions&#13;
	Sede PI, Ohemeng W. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 – 2011). Health Econ Rev. 2015 Feb 7;5(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s13561-014-0037-z&#13;
	Dritsaki C, Stamatiou P. Investigating the Impact of Market Openness on Economic Growth for Poland: an Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing approach to cointegration. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. 2019;9(6):123. doi:10.32479/ijefi.8327    &#13;
	Aregbeshola BS, Khan SM. Out-of-pocket payments, catastrophic health expenditure and poverty among households in Nigeria 2010. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2018 Mar 10;7(9):798–806. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2018.19&#13;
	Aregbeshola BS, Khan SM. Determinants of catastrophic health expenditure in Nigeria. Eur J Health Econ. 2018 May;19(4):521–32. doi:10.1007/s10198-017-0899-1&#13;
	Sherman EJ, Pfister DG, Ruchlin HS, Rubin DM, Radzyner MH, Kelleher GH, et al. The collection of indirect and nonmedical direct costs (COIN) form. Cancer. 2001;91(4):841–53.&#13;
	Johnson A, Goss A, Beckerman J, Castro A. Hidden costs: the direct and indirect impact of user fees on access to malaria treatment and primary care in Mali. Social Science and; Medicine. 2012 Nov 1;75(10):1786–92. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.07.015&#13;
	World Health Organization (WHO). Designing health financing systems to reduce catastrophic health expenditure. Technical Brief for policy makers, No.2. 2005. Available from: https://www.who.int/health_financing/pb_2.pdf&#13;
	Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/World Health Organization. DAC guidelines and reference series – poverty and health. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/World Health Organization. 2003.  Available from: https://www.who.int/tobacco/research/economics/publications/oecd_dac_pov_health.pdf&#13;
	Kishor S, Parasuraman S. Motherand;#39;s employment and infant and child mortality in India. National family health survey subject reports/International Institute for Population Sciences [ua].1998 April. Available from: https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/3474/1/NFHSsubjrpt008.pd&#13;
	Acharya DR, Bell JS, Simkhada P, van Teijlingen ER, Regmi PR. Women’s autonomy in household decision-making: a demographic study in Nepal. Reproductive Health. 2010 Jul 15;7(1):15. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-7-15&#13;
	Makama GA. Patriarchy and gender inequality in Nigeria: the way forward. European Scientific Journal, ESJ. 2013 Jun 30;9(17):115–44. Available from: https://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/1161&#13;
	Federal Republic of Nigeria. Abuja declaration on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. https://au.int/en/file/32894-file-2001-abuja-declarationpdf&#13;
	Abubakar M, Basiru S, Oluyemi J, Abdulateef R, Atolagbe E, Adejoke J, et al. Medical tourism in Nigeria: challenges and remedies to health care system development. International Journal of Development and Management Review [Internet]. 2018 May 30 [cited 2020 May 16];13(1). Available from: https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijdmr/article/view/172290&#13;
	Sulaiman C, Abdul-Rahim AS. Population growth and CO2 emission in Nigeria: a Recursive ARDL approach. SAGE Open. 2018 Apr 1;8(2):2158244018765916. doi: 10.1177/2158244018765916</References>